First, we excluded cases identified as having hypertension at standard because these members was indeed likely to transform its weight loss activities immediately following perceiving chance
Immediately after emptying their bladders, the participants seated on the side for over five profil plenty of fish minutes. The blood pressure level was counted having fun with good calibrated mercury sphygmomanometer of the a trained wellness nursing assistant following a standard processes. The players set the proper sleeve when you look at the a beneficial cuff airbag, measured about step one minute anywhere between tracks. I discussed blood pressure levels patients that a suggest of SBP ? 140 mmHg, a mean regarding DBP ? 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication with regards to the recommendations to have stopping and dealing with blood pressure level in China (2010) 23 . Diabetic issues and myocardial infarction had been discussed based on notice-declaration out of diagnosis because of the a health care professional in public places hospitals above the condition height. The players ought to provide the brand new certification of diabetic issues or myocardial infarction. Detectives must make certain the brand new patient’s diagnosis off evidence and you will inquiry all the questions ‘Has a health care provider ever given you the analysis off all forms of diabetes?
Has actually a health care professional actually ever considering you the analysis of myocardial infarction? Medication use try discussed according to research by the participants’ self-statement, where investigators need certainly to inquire the players the next inquiries: ‘Are you currently bringing anti-blood pressure levels medication? Did you use the oral medicine, injections of insulin, Chinese conventional medicine, otherwise home cures to ease all forms of diabetes? According to the assistance into cures and you may therapy of bloodstream lipids into the Chinese adults (2006), members exactly who fulfilled one or more of one’s pursuing the criteria: (1) TC ? six. We in addition to noticed other fat loss covariates, such as total weight-loss opportunity, times, whole grain, meat, fruits, create, over loaded fatty acidic, polyunsaturated greasy acidic, cereal fibre, Na, K, and you can cholesterol consumption, as surrogates to control possible fat loss confounding.
The fresh new collective average consumption of calcium supplements, magnesium, and you can phosphorus was determined to reduce within-individual adaptation which means acquire an educated guess of the much time-name intake. Person-years of pursue-upwards for every single participant was in fact determined as the period amongst the time regarding doing of baseline questionnaire and the stop regarding follow-right up (the new date of the history head to and/or check out regarding heart attack diagnosis), any sort of emerged first. The fresh occurrence rate are calculated of the separating the number of times by people-several years of go after-right up. New multivariate Cox proportional perils habits were used so you’re able to guess the fresh danger ratios (HR) and you can 95% believe durations (95% CI) of fabricating coronary arrest based on diet calcium supplements, magnesium, and you can phosphorus consumption utilizing the lower quartile since the site classification. Throughout the Cox proportional risks designs, the latest p for trend is performed by modeling the brand new average out-of the brand new classes discussed by for every single quartile as the an ongoing adjustable.
We first performed statistical interaction tests between dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and other baseline characteristics (Table 1). We used the Kolmogorov-Sminov test to test the normality of all variables. We outlined the baseline characteristics of the participants. We used the t-test for the continuous variables with normal distribution to test for differences and trends between groups. The non-parametric test is applied to the continuous variables with non-normal distribution, and the chi-square test is used for the classified variables. Then, we categorize the three-day average intakes of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus into four levels. We constructed three sequential models to estimate the effect of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus intakes on stroke. Model 2 further added baseline sociodemographic and lifestyle factors such as urbanization index, education, household income, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and medication use into the multivariable analysis. Model 3 additionally adjusted for dietary factors including energy (kcal/d), whole grain (g/d), red meat (g/d), fruits (g/d), vegetables (g/d), saturated fatty acid (g/d), polyunsaturated fatty acid (g/d), cereal fiber (g/d), Na (mg/d), K (mg/d) and cholesterol (g/d) 24,25,26 . To further analyze which factors would affect the relationship between the exposure and outcome, we conducted stratified analyses by age at baseline (< 60 and ? 60 years), sex (man and woman), smoking (never and ever), drinking (never and ever), BMI (< 24, 24–28 and > 28 kg/m 2 ), hypertension, diabetes, and Myocardial infarction. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess the interactions of cross-product terms. The proportional hazards assumption for dietary calcium, magnesium, phosphorus Intakes, and other covariates was checked by Schoenfeld’s residuals, and no violation was found (P > 0.05). Besides, we performed sensitivity analyses to verify the robustness of the primary results. Second, we repeated the analysis using the non-adjusted person-time from the date of the first visit to the time of the most recent visit of stroke diagnosis or to the end of follow-up, whichever came first. Third, we included dyslipidemia as a sensitivity analysis, which confirmed the robustness of our findings to some degree. Tests for trends across dietary intake categories were conducted by modeling the median value in each quartile as a continuous variable in each model. All statistical analyses were performed with STATA version 14.0. All P-values were two-sided, and P < 0.05 was considered to statistical significance.